Calcium is the most abundant mineral present in the body. It is essential for various functions in the body such as muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve signal transmission, and hormone secretion. Calcium is also required to carry out many metabolic functions.
In the body about 99% of the calcium is concentrated in the hard structure of bones and teeth. The remaining 1% is present in the intracellular and extracellular fluids. About 50% of the total blood-calcium content is in the physiologically active ionized form with approximately 10% being complexed to citrate, phosphate or other anions, the remaining 40% being bound to proteins, principally albumin.
Deficiency of calcium can increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, hypocalcemia and osteopenia. Vitamin D and calcium supplements act as an adjunct to the specific osteoporosis treatment. Vitamin D increases the intestinal absorption of calcium. Calcium on interaction with medicinal products such as Thiazide diuretics reduces the urinary excretion of calcium, and therefore calcium remains in the body.